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Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water by Utilizing Modified Bagasse Sugarcane as Low-Cost Adsorbents for Bilaspur City, Chhattisgarh

D. Verma1, J. Supe1 *, S. Verma2 *, and R. R. Singh1

  1. Department of Civil Engineering, Rungta College of Engineering and Technology, Bhilai 490023, India
  2. Department of Civil Engineering, MATS University Aarang, Raipur 493441, India

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-982-746-7642. E-mail address: (J. Supe).
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-934-081-1945. E-mail address: (S. Verma).


Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in fluoride contamination in drinking water, leading to evident harmful effects in various locations. Tackling the challenge of reducing fluoride levels in potable water has become a significant concern for drinking water supply agencies. In our current study, we focused on creating and characterizing different adsorbents, namely sugarcane bagasse, coconut husk, and rice husk, for their ability to effectively remove fluoride. These adsorbents are not only cost-effective and readily available but also straightforward to prepare. We conducted thorough characterizations of all three adsorbents to assess their performance under various conditions. This included investigating the impact of pH on removal efficiency, evaluating removal efficiency with varying doses of adsorbent, analyzing removal efficiency across different temperatures, studying the influence of the initial concentration of fluoride on the total amount of adsorbent per unit mass, and examining the impact of altering initial fluoride concentrations while maintaining a constant temperature of 30 ± 2 °C. Our findings revealed noteworthy insights into the effects of these parameters on removal efficiency. fluoride contamination in the groundwater of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, originates not only from anthropogenic sources but also from geogenic sources. The efficiency of contamination reduction rises as the pH increases, reaching a plateau after a certain point. When employing an adsorbent dose of 0.5 g/100 mL of modified bagasse sugarcane (MBS) and a contact time of 75 minutes, along with a temperature of 323 K, the highest efficiency is observed in the MBC. Subsequently, the efficiency is lower in aluminum-hydroxide-coated rice husk and then in modified coconut husk. Analysis indicates that as the initial fluoride concentration increases, the removal efficiency di- minishes due to the capacity limitations of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: fluoride removal, low-cost adsorbents, Bilaspur city, Chhattisgarh, water treatment

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